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What is Hypercalcemia?

Hypercalcemia as the name imply is excess of Calcium in the body system.

That is, there are present of Calcium above the normal or reference range in the blood cells.

High level of Calcium (Hypercalcemia) are often found in the following conditions; hypothyroidism, cancer metastases in bones, alkalosis (diet for peptic ulcer) hypervitaminosis.

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What is Hypocalcemia?

The opposite of Hypercalcemia is Hypocalcemia.

It a condition when the present of Calcium in the blood cells doesn’t reach the Normal or Reference range.

Lower level of Calcium in the blood is called Hypocalcemia.

Often Hypocalcemia are found in the following conditions; hypoparathyroidism, Rickets, chronic glomerulonephritis, acute pancreatitis and malabsorption syndrome.

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What is Cholesterol?

Unsaturated steroid alcohol in our blood cells is called Cholesterol.

70 to 80 percent of cholesterol in the plasma are esterified with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, why 20 to 30 percent exist as free unesterified cholesterol.

Function of Cholesterol

Metabolic precursor for the biosynthesis of bile acids, and steroids hormones, includes male and female sex steroids (androgen and oestrogens) and adrenal steroid hormones ( aldosterones and corticosterone, are the major function of Cholesterol.

Liver, ovaries, testes and adrenal glands synthesise these hormones using cholesterol as the main precursor.

Cholesterol is a major structural components of cell membranes.

As results of it insurability in water, Cholesterol can also help control flow of water soluble products in and out of cells.

In human, 60 to 70 percent of Cholesterol is transported by low density lipoprotein, (LDL), 20 to 35 percent by High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and 5 to 12 percent by very low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL).

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Ultrasound Scan Request

Here are some basic ultrasound scan request;

1. Obstetric Scan

2. Biophysical profile

3. Fetal Anomaly Scan

4. Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI)

5. Fetal Doppler Scan

6. Pelvic Scan/Gynaecological Scan

7. Transvaginal Scan

8. Follicle Tracking

9. Sono-HSG

10. Transrectal scan

11. Prostate scan

12. Upper abdomen

13. Abdominopelvic

14. Renal Scan

15. Soft Tissue/small parts

16. Thyroid

17. Hemia

18. Breast

19. Ocular/eye

20. Transfrontanells

21. Muscles-Skeleton scan

22. Other soft Tissue

23. Abdomen with Doppler

And others

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Liquid Media or Broth

Media are nutritional substance use for culture and isolation of micro-organism.

Mostly, for isolation of Bacteria, fungi and virus in microbiology laboratory.

Media has several classification, Liquid Media or Broth is one of the classification.

Liquid Media aides free movement of bacteria.

Liquid Media are use basically for Biochemical testing, blood culture, testing for motility and as enrichment media.

The media has little disadvantage, which is, it didn’t garuanteed purity of growth.

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Aluminum Hydroxide

Aluminum Hydroxide is antacid drugs, it’s used for treating of Peptic and gastritis ulcer.

Aluminum Hydroxide is often use to treat Stomach pain causes by gastric and Peptic Ulcer.


You may see Aluminum Hydroxide of 500mg tablets.

Also there are different preparations of aluminum and or magnesium hydroxide and in different dosages.

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Red Blood Cells

Red Cells called erythrocytes form major cellular component of blood, i.e. Red Cells form about 45 percent of total volume of blood in adults, it give blood it reds colour.

Each litre of blood contains about 5 x 10exp12 red Cells, but the exact number different with sex, age, gender and state of health.

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Blood Cell Production

Bady can’t function without energy.

The energy is the blood in our body.

Blood in our body is produced by a component of bone called Bone marrow.

We have red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow.

Red Bone Marrow.

Red bone marrow responsible for Red blood cells production.

Yellow bone marrow

Yellow bone marrow responsible for White blood cells production.

Production of all blood types in our body is called Haematopoiesis.