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What is Biological Hazards?

Medical Laboratory is a very risky place to work in health system.

Many sample they brought to laboratory for investigation of a particular disease, may be infected with others contagious disease, and you as a scientist will not know, that is why the first procedure in medical Laboratory is safety.

Apply safety from collecting sample to handling and finally doing the investigation.

What is Biological Hazards is all about?

Hazard cause by biological agents is called biological hazards.

What is Biological agent, this a biological micro-organism that cause infection or disease in human being.

Most of these biological agents, refer to as pathogens are harmless outside the host, but when they gain access into the host body, they Begin to reproduce thereby cause damage to the system.

The biological agents which are known to be pathogens to human, are classify base on the effects they have on Human being.

They are group from 1 to 4.

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Normochromic Anaemia

In hematology, Normocytic mean same size and Normochromic mean the same color.

The type of Anaemia in Which the circulation of red blood cells, (RBCs) has the same size (Normocytic) and posses the same color, (normochromic) is called Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia.

In normocytic normochromic Anaemia, red blood cells appear in two form, which is normocytic and Normochromic in a stained blood film and the means Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC); Mean Cell Volume (MCV) and Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) are normal.

Where Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia found?

Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia can be found in a patient with:

1. Acute blood loss

2. Anaemia of Chronic disease

3. Aplastic Aplastic Anaemia

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Analytical Balance

Analytical balance as the name implies is an instrument use in weighing substance in the laboratory. Instrument is basically a two pan balance.

It has a simple operation by which a set of Known weight is added in one Pan while the other pan is balanced by the substance being a weights. This type of balance is fast fading away.

A modifications of the balance described above is a single pan balance.

Attached to one end of the balance is a beam with a weighing scale on it.

Before Weighing a substance, the scale is set to zero with the aid of a knob at the other end of the beam. A substance is weight by moving the scale on the beam to achieve equilibrium. This balance take a maximum load of about 200 g with the sensitivity of 1 mg.


Medical Laboratory Science theory and Practice, page 18.

J. Ochei and A Kolhatkar. publish in 2000

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Liquid Media or Broth

Media are nutritional substance use for culture and isolation of micro-organism.

Mostly, for isolation of Bacteria, fungi and virus in microbiology laboratory.

Media has several classification, Liquid Media or Broth is one of the classification.

Liquid Media aides free movement of bacteria.

Liquid Media are use basically for Biochemical testing, blood culture, testing for motility and as enrichment media.

The media has little disadvantage, which is, it didn’t garuanteed purity of growth.

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Genus Salmonella, Parasitic to Man?

What is Salmonella?

Salmonella are groups of gram negative micro-organism bacteria responsibility in causing typhoid disease.

In it characteristics, Salmonella are rods, motile and facultative anaerobe bacteria.

Salmonella oxidase negative, catalase positive, KCN negative, often citrate positive and H2S positive.

Salmonellae attack carbohydrates by fermentation.

Salmonellae mostly parasitic to man, animals, such as cows, pigs, goats and Birds, hens duck are not also left out.

S. Typhi and S. paratyphi are parasitics to man only

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Microbiology Test

Here are some common test request in Microbiology Laboratory.

1. Urine Microscopy.

2. Urine Microscopic culture and Sensitivity M/C/S.

3. Stool Microscopy

4. Stool Microscopic culture and Sensitivity M/C/S.

5. Occult blood in Stool

6. High Vagina Swab Microscopic culture and Sensitivity HVS M/C/S.

7. Urethral Microscopic culture and Sensitivity M/C/S.

8. Blood Culture/Sensitivity.

9. Blood Microfilaria

10. Seminal Fluid Analysis and Microscopic culture and Sensitivity M/C/S.

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Common test Request often in Nigeria Medical Laboratories

Medical Laboratory test is the same all over the world, but base on the endemic of particular infection, some societies tend to limit the required investigation.

Nigeria is not an exemption.

Because excess of Mosquitoes who help in transmitting Malaria, MP, Malaria parasites is one of the common test Request in Nigeria.

And often if not difficult to see Nigerian that is completely free of Malaria Parasites.

Another test common in Nigeria is PCV, Packed Cell Volume.

Malaria Parasites engulf in red blood cells, thereby destroy the blood cells, hence people that suffered from malaria infection often have low blood percentage.

Sugar test, Widal test, RVS, blood group, Genotype and others basic test are Request in Nigeria today.