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What is General Body Test?

A general body test is an investigation of the entire body systems.

In medical laboratory, some patients often walked in and request for general test.

Most of these patients are the one that weren’t refer by medical personnels.

Why This patients request for General Test?

Most of the patient that request for general test are the one that has reocurent symptoms of general body pains and they have done several treatments without test, an no improvement.

Did we have General Test?

Did we actually have general test as some patients often requested?

The answer is yes, there are general test, but many people who often come for the test can’t afford the cost, because general body test will include all x-ray, Scan, all clinical Chemistry Test, microbiology and others, which will cost close to millions Naira if not above.

But the scientist who have experience and have work for sometimes will ask the patient some basic question, the question will help the scientist to outline some basic test, the test will be inline with the patient complain.

In some case, the Laboratory may have Dr. Which the patient can consult before doing the test.

The Doctor will help observe and ask the you the patient some questions, this question will guide the doctor to prescribe basic test for you.

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What is Biological Hazards?

Medical Laboratory is a very risky place to work in health system.

Many sample they brought to laboratory for investigation of a particular disease, may be infected with others contagious disease, and you as a scientist will not know, that is why the first procedure in medical Laboratory is safety.

Apply safety from collecting sample to handling and finally doing the investigation.

What is Biological Hazards is all about?

Hazard cause by biological agents is called biological hazards.

What is Biological agent, this a biological micro-organism that cause infection or disease in human being.

Most of these biological agents, refer to as pathogens are harmless outside the host, but when they gain access into the host body, they Begin to reproduce thereby cause damage to the system.

The biological agents which are known to be pathogens to human, are classify base on the effects they have on Human being.

They are group from 1 to 4.

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Design for setting Up Medical Laboratories

Just like every other things that have basics requirements, and set-up, Medical Laboratory has it own designs to suit the jobs needs.

When starting a medical laboratory, some basic consideration must be taken into account in bring out laboratories design.

In this post, i will outline seven basics, compulsory design laboratory needs.

1. The Laboratory surface must be impervious to water and must be easy to clean.

2. Working bench in the laboratory must be resistance to chemical attacks, such as acids, alkalis, solvents, and disinfectant.

3. Laboratory is not a restaurant, as such accessing the laboratory is restricted to only authorized personnel.

4. For Safety of workers, laboratory must have safety cabinet and room where possiblity of exposure to biological hazards agent be build and in control.

5. Any door that give access to room where infected organisms is, must carry Bio-hazard label.

6. Mechanically ventilated laboratory must maintain inward airflow by extracting to the external atmosphere.

7. Autoclave must be available at all times for waste material sterilization.

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Normochromic Anaemia

In hematology, Normocytic mean same size and Normochromic mean the same color.

The type of Anaemia in Which the circulation of red blood cells, (RBCs) has the same size (Normocytic) and posses the same color, (normochromic) is called Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia.

In normocytic normochromic Anaemia, red blood cells appear in two form, which is normocytic and Normochromic in a stained blood film and the means Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC); Mean Cell Volume (MCV) and Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) are normal.

Where Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia found?

Normocytic Normochromic Anaemia can be found in a patient with:

1. Acute blood loss

2. Anaemia of Chronic disease

3. Aplastic Aplastic Anaemia

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Acute blood loss

When there is dropped in Red Blood Cells, (RBCs) hemoglobins or volume of Packed Cells Volume (PCV), dropped abruptly, it refer to as Acute Blood Loss (ABL).

According to World health organization, (WHO), when hemoglobins of man dropped below 13g/dl and woman dropped below 12g/dl, it said to be anaemia.

Anaemia is generally defined as shortage of blood below it recommended or Normal range.

Anaemia are classify into two, which are Acute Anaemia and Chronic Anaemia.

Acute Anaemia

Acute Anaemia said to have take place when there is abrupt dropped of RBC, mostly cause by hemolysis or hemorrhage.

Chronic Anaemia

Chronic Anaemia anaemia is referred to slow decline of RBCs, which may be caused by Ion or Other nutritional deficiency, drugs-induced, Chronic Disease such as Cancer, HIV and others cause.

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Anaemia of Chronic disease

Anaemia of Chronic disease

Anaemia is simply shortage of Red Blood Cells, RBCs in the body system.

Since ion help circulating Oxygen we takes in and expelled unwanted carbon dioxide in our body, with shortage of these substance, it will affect respiration thereby led to difficult in breathing.

Ion, refer to Hematin which is one of the essential component that make whole bloods.

Anaemia can be caused I’m many ways.

When some has a deep, it will lead to blood if not quickly arrests, will cause Anemia.

Anaemia of Chronic disease is a type of Anaemia that results due to chronic diseases.

Is sometimes call Anemia of inflammation, most expecially, type of anemia that affects people who have conditions that cause inflammation.
such as infections such as HIV infection, autoimmune diseases, cancer link, and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

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Aplastic Anaemia

What is Aplastic Anaemia?

Anaemia simple mean shortage of Red Blood Cells in the body system.

Anaemia don’t just happened, there are roots cause of it.

One of the roots causes despite it is rear, but still possible is stoppage of red blood production in the body system.

When Bones marrow stop production of red blood cells, the condition often lead to Anaemia called Aplastic Anaemia.

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Care of a laboratory balance

This article we are going to discuss on how to care for laboratory balance.

Laboratory balance is a delicate instrument that gives a precision measurement. This instrument need careful handling and regular maintenance.

The manufacturer instruction for use are to be followed as much as possible when using the weighing balance. In using weighing, balance here are the simple rules that have to be followed. This rules are guide and mentainace of the balance.

1. The balance must be positioned very well which must be free of vibration preferably in a draug-free areas.

2. Level the balance with the help of a spirit level by adjusting the screw on the stand.

3. Zero the balance before weighing.

5. Never wear any substance that readily on the pan of a balance used a weighing container.

4. Always use forceps to add or remove weights when using a pan balance.

6. Keep the balance and the pan free of chemical by brushing the pan off after use.

7. Always keep a desiccant inside the cabinet of analytical balance.

8. Check the accuracy of the balance regularly.

9. When not in use protect the balance with a cover.

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Analytical Balance

Analytical balance as the name implies is an instrument use in weighing substance in the laboratory. Instrument is basically a two pan balance.

It has a simple operation by which a set of Known weight is added in one Pan while the other pan is balanced by the substance being a weights. This type of balance is fast fading away.

A modifications of the balance described above is a single pan balance.

Attached to one end of the balance is a beam with a weighing scale on it.

Before Weighing a substance, the scale is set to zero with the aid of a knob at the other end of the beam. A substance is weight by moving the scale on the beam to achieve equilibrium. This balance take a maximum load of about 200 g with the sensitivity of 1 mg.


Medical Laboratory Science theory and Practice, page 18.

J. Ochei and A Kolhatkar. publish in 2000

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Body Calcium

Calcium is chemical substances that form structural mineral in our bones.

Calcium is major cation in the body system.

There are many Medical Laboratory method available for the estimation of calcium levels in our body Plasma or serums.

Some among of this method depends on the precipitation of insoluble salt of Calcium.

Atomic absorption flame Photometry and Titration with Ethylene Diamine Tetraceptic Acids, (EDTA), are the most widely used method in the laboratory.

Another method which has become popular too, is Dye-Binding Method, e.g. methyl-thymol blue or cresophthalen complexone method.