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Acute blood loss

When there is dropped in Red Blood Cells, (RBCs) hemoglobins or volume of Packed Cells Volume (PCV), dropped abruptly, it refer to as Acute Blood Loss (ABL).

According to World health organization, (WHO), when hemoglobins of man dropped below 13g/dl and woman dropped below 12g/dl, it said to be anaemia.

Anaemia is generally defined as shortage of blood below it recommended or Normal range.

Anaemia are classify into two, which are Acute Anaemia and Chronic Anaemia.

Acute Anaemia

Acute Anaemia said to have take place when there is abrupt dropped of RBC, mostly cause by hemolysis or hemorrhage.

Chronic Anaemia

Chronic Anaemia anaemia is referred to slow decline of RBCs, which may be caused by Ion or Other nutritional deficiency, drugs-induced, Chronic Disease such as Cancer, HIV and others cause.

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Anaemia of Chronic disease

Anaemia of Chronic disease

Anaemia is simply shortage of Red Blood Cells, RBCs in the body system.

Since ion help circulating Oxygen we takes in and expelled unwanted carbon dioxide in our body, with shortage of these substance, it will affect respiration thereby led to difficult in breathing.

Ion, refer to Hematin which is one of the essential component that make whole bloods.

Anaemia can be caused I’m many ways.

When some has a deep, it will lead to blood if not quickly arrests, will cause Anemia.

Anaemia of Chronic disease is a type of Anaemia that results due to chronic diseases.

Is sometimes call Anemia of inflammation, most expecially, type of anemia that affects people who have conditions that cause inflammation.
such as infections such as HIV infection, autoimmune diseases, cancer link, and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

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Aplastic Anaemia

What is Aplastic Anaemia?

Anaemia simple mean shortage of Red Blood Cells in the body system.

Anaemia don’t just happened, there are roots cause of it.

One of the roots causes despite it is rear, but still possible is stoppage of red blood production in the body system.

When Bones marrow stop production of red blood cells, the condition often lead to Anaemia called Aplastic Anaemia.

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Care of a laboratory balance

This article we are going to discuss on how to care for laboratory balance.

Laboratory balance is a delicate instrument that gives a precision measurement. This instrument need careful handling and regular maintenance.

The manufacturer instruction for use are to be followed as much as possible when using the weighing balance. In using weighing, balance here are the simple rules that have to be followed. This rules are guide and mentainace of the balance.

1. The balance must be positioned very well which must be free of vibration preferably in a draug-free areas.

2. Level the balance with the help of a spirit level by adjusting the screw on the stand.

3. Zero the balance before weighing.

5. Never wear any substance that readily on the pan of a balance used a weighing container.

4. Always use forceps to add or remove weights when using a pan balance.

6. Keep the balance and the pan free of chemical by brushing the pan off after use.

7. Always keep a desiccant inside the cabinet of analytical balance.

8. Check the accuracy of the balance regularly.

9. When not in use protect the balance with a cover.

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Analytical Balance

Analytical balance as the name implies is an instrument use in weighing substance in the laboratory. Instrument is basically a two pan balance.

It has a simple operation by which a set of Known weight is added in one Pan while the other pan is balanced by the substance being a weights. This type of balance is fast fading away.

A modifications of the balance described above is a single pan balance.

Attached to one end of the balance is a beam with a weighing scale on it.

Before Weighing a substance, the scale is set to zero with the aid of a knob at the other end of the beam. A substance is weight by moving the scale on the beam to achieve equilibrium. This balance take a maximum load of about 200 g with the sensitivity of 1 mg.


Medical Laboratory Science theory and Practice, page 18.

J. Ochei and A Kolhatkar. publish in 2000

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Body Calcium

Calcium is chemical substances that form structural mineral in our bones.

Calcium is major cation in the body system.

There are many Medical Laboratory method available for the estimation of calcium levels in our body Plasma or serums.

Some among of this method depends on the precipitation of insoluble salt of Calcium.

Atomic absorption flame Photometry and Titration with Ethylene Diamine Tetraceptic Acids, (EDTA), are the most widely used method in the laboratory.

Another method which has become popular too, is Dye-Binding Method, e.g. methyl-thymol blue or cresophthalen complexone method.

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What is Hypercalcemia?

Hypercalcemia as the name imply is excess of Calcium in the body system.

That is, there are present of Calcium above the normal or reference range in the blood cells.

High level of Calcium (Hypercalcemia) are often found in the following conditions; hypothyroidism, cancer metastases in bones, alkalosis (diet for peptic ulcer) hypervitaminosis.

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What is Hypocalcemia?

The opposite of Hypercalcemia is Hypocalcemia.

It a condition when the present of Calcium in the blood cells doesn’t reach the Normal or Reference range.

Lower level of Calcium in the blood is called Hypocalcemia.

Often Hypocalcemia are found in the following conditions; hypoparathyroidism, Rickets, chronic glomerulonephritis, acute pancreatitis and malabsorption syndrome.

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What is Cholesterol?

Unsaturated steroid alcohol in our blood cells is called Cholesterol.

70 to 80 percent of cholesterol in the plasma are esterified with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, why 20 to 30 percent exist as free unesterified cholesterol.

Function of Cholesterol

Metabolic precursor for the biosynthesis of bile acids, and steroids hormones, includes male and female sex steroids (androgen and oestrogens) and adrenal steroid hormones ( aldosterones and corticosterone, are the major function of Cholesterol.

Liver, ovaries, testes and adrenal glands synthesise these hormones using cholesterol as the main precursor.

Cholesterol is a major structural components of cell membranes.

As results of it insurability in water, Cholesterol can also help control flow of water soluble products in and out of cells.

In human, 60 to 70 percent of Cholesterol is transported by low density lipoprotein, (LDL), 20 to 35 percent by High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and 5 to 12 percent by very low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL).

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Ultrasound Scan Request

Here are some basic ultrasound scan request;

1. Obstetric Scan

2. Biophysical profile

3. Fetal Anomaly Scan

4. Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI)

5. Fetal Doppler Scan

6. Pelvic Scan/Gynaecological Scan

7. Transvaginal Scan

8. Follicle Tracking

9. Sono-HSG

10. Transrectal scan

11. Prostate scan

12. Upper abdomen

13. Abdominopelvic

14. Renal Scan

15. Soft Tissue/small parts

16. Thyroid

17. Hemia

18. Breast

19. Ocular/eye

20. Transfrontanells

21. Muscles-Skeleton scan

22. Other soft Tissue

23. Abdomen with Doppler

And others